A Global History: From Prehistory to the 21st Century by Leften Stavrianos

By Leften Stavrianos

Designed for classes in global background and global Civilization, this best-selling, vintage exploration of worldwide historical past takes an interdisciplinary international (rather than a neighborhood or nationwide) approach—tracing these significant forces, pursuits, and occasions that experience had a world-wide influence. It stresses connections among the prior, current and destiny, emphasizing the query “What does it suggest for us today?” The Seventh Edition reevaluates the process human historical past with an eye fixed towards the millennium, reflecting in its assurance the top of the chilly warfare and the dawning percentages for a brand new kind of worldwide historical past.

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There were six major centers of civilization in the eastern Mediterranean world and Middle East: Mesopotamia, the Near East (Syria, Lebanon, Israel and Palestine), Egypt (the Nile Valley), Kush or Nubia to the south of Egypt, the Hittite Empire, and Mycenean Greece. , and some regions, like the Nile, had been civilized far longer. However, during the 1100s, one of the greatest catastrophes in history occurred as, quite suddenly and quite dramatically, four of these civilizations (Egypt, Mycenean Greece, the Hittite Empire, and the Near East) were attacked and almost every city in the Eastern Mediterranean, 47 in all, was destroyed.

Now the two men were on separate horses with no vehicle but one was still fulfilling the old battlefield role. However, there were advantages for this new type of warfare. Men on horseback could function on difficult terrain unsuitable for chariot wheels, and, maybe more important, two men on horseback without a chariot were far cheaper than two men in a chariot pulled by two horses. More soldiers could thus be put into the field. By the 700s, new ways to rein a horse were developed. This brought increased control for an individual rider, and for the first time a single rider on a single horse could act independently in battle; riders working in tandem were no longer necessary.

Egypt had been in decline since the death of Rameses II, in 1213, and was further weakened when many of its vassals in the Near East were overrun by the invaders. Between 1208 and 1176, Egypt faced four major invasions from both land and sea, the first during the reign of Merneptah (r. 1213–1202), the thirteenth son and successor of Rameses II, and the last three during the reign of Rameses III (r. 1186–1154), the second ruler of Egypt’s Dynasty XX (1188–1069) and possibly a greatgrandson of Rameses II.

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