By James C. Lin
This accomplished and topical quantity provides a couple of major advances on many fronts during this sector of analysis, fairly emphasizing present and destiny biomedical functions of electromagnetic fields.
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Additional info for Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems: Volume 4 (Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems)
This ﬁlter does not affect the amplitudes and intracardiac-time intervals. , 2001]. An adaptive ﬁlter has two input channels, a primary channel and a reference channel. The input to the primary channel is the fetal MCG signal corrupted with noise and the input to the reference channel is the maternal ECG signal. The ﬁlter has a set of modiﬁable weights and the weights are updated using an adaptive ﬁltering algorithm. The reference signal v(k) is processed by the adaptive ﬁlter to produce the output signal y(k) = K −1 wi (k)v(k − i) (2) i=0 where the wi(k) are the adjustable (real) weights of the adaptive ﬁlter.
In the next step, the cardiac complexes are extracted from the ﬁltered signal. These complexes are used to construct a template of the cardiac complex. Using this template the signal is ﬁltered again and the template serves here as a matched ﬁlter. Using the algorithm described above, the events are again detected and a threshold of 65% of the median value is used again. The last step in the detection process is checking the minimum time interval between two detected R-peaks. Whenever the interval is shorter than 200 ms, the R-peak with the lowest correlation in the matched ﬁlter is rejected.
The R-peak locations in time obtained from the maternal ECG indicate when a maternal R-peak is present in the fetal signal. A template of the maternal cardiac complex can be constructed by averaging the maternal complexes in the fetal signal. This template can be subsequently subtracted at all the time instants where a maternal complex is found in the fetal signal. 24 Maria J. Peters et al. A) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 Time [ms] B) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 Time [ms] Figure 14. An example of application of ICA.